The anaphora creates a rhythmic anchor that forces Dickens's contradictory descriptions to remain connected. Look at you! Your teeth are like a flock of sheep about to be sheared, who are coming up from being washed. The Hollow Men, however, proves to have many offerings for a reader in and among itself. "The Hollow Men" (1925) is a poem by T. S. Eliot. Martin Luther King Jr., Civil Rights Leader, Biography of Maria W. Stewart, Groundbreaking Lecturer and Activist, The 'Big Six' Organizers of the Civil Rights Movement, How to Use Repetition to Develop Effective Paragraphs, Definition and Examples of Conduplicatio in Rhetoric, Definition and Examples of Repetition in Writing, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. In this context, the anaphora serves to emphasize the inescapability of the singer's stalker-like gaze. On the other side of a mythical river, dead ancestors see and judge the men. Moloch whose smokestacks and antennae crown the cities! The term "anaphora" comes from the Greek for "to carry up or back.". Explanations and citation info for 28,209 quotes across 1373 books, Downloadable (PDF) line-by-line translations of every Shakespeare play. Goldman, Rebecca. Anaphora in Dr. King's "Letter From a Birmingham Jail", "But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, brutalize and even kill your Black brothers and sisters with impunity; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six-year-old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her little eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see the depressing cloud of inferiority begin to form in her little mental sky, and see her begin to distort her little personality by unconsciously developing a bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son asking in agonizing pathos: 'Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean? More clearly link two or more ideas through the repeated phrasing. They attempt to pray, but fail. Below are a few famous examples of anaphora, which offer some insight into the way it works in various contexts. It rained all over the place. The Question and Answer section for The Hollow Men is a great Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter From a Birmingham Jail," April 16, 1963. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. This excerpt of Churchill's speech also shows how anaphora can help to give structure and therefore meaning and interest to a list. Anaphora has been used to powerful effect by some of the most influential public figures throughout history. Comparisons in the Representation of the Modern Man in “The Hollow Men” and “To Build a Fire”, The Importance of Ambiguity in the Representation of Reality and Truth in "Preludes," "The Hollow Men," and "Journey of the Magi". For want of a battle the kingdom was lost. Songwriters also make frequent use of anaphora to create catchy, rhythmic lyrics that will remain lodged in the listener's memory, or to convey strong emotion. In fact, a writer can use such variations to amplify anaphora's effect. Every breath you take Every move you make Every bond you break Every step you take I'll be watching you. Eliot, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Vocabulary Quiz on 'I Have a Dream' Speech, Effective Rhetorical Strategies of Repetition, Biography of the Rev. Anaphora is a rhetorical term for the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. I don't like your jerk-off name. What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence or lawlessness, but love and wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice towards those who still suffer within our country, whether they be white or whether they be black. Anaphora Definition. Kennedy uses anaphora to focus on the tragedy of the day's events, while implicitly begging the question: what do we need as a nation to move forward? Your eyes behind your veil are doves your hair is like a flock of goats coming down from Mt. For example, Martin Luther King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech contains anaphora: "So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Moloch's name becomes an anaphora that is repeated multiple times within each line, as in the excerpt below: Moloch whose eyes are a thousand blind windows! Anaphora is most commonly found in poetry, though it can be found in prose as well. "In school, I am a luckless goosegirl, friendless and forlorn. In this excerpt from Chapter 20 of The Catcher in the Rye, Salinger makes use of anaphora as Holden Caulfield recalls a miserable visit to his deceased brother's grave. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Anaphora is one of the oldest literary devices, and dates back to religious texts such as the Psalms of the Bible. In this short excerpt from The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald uses anaphora in a description of the apartment that Tom Buchanan keeps as a secret location for his extramarital affair. Get a quick-reference PDF with concise definitions of all 136 Lit Terms we cover. Eliot. Make a phrase more memorable for the reader/listener. The repeated words that make anaphora can vary slightly in each instance and still count as anaphora. resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. These Hollow Men narrate the poem in a chorus. The anaphora emphasizes the smallness of this gaudy apartment, which also reflects the pettiness of the affair. Like much of his work, its themes are overlapping and fragmentary, concerned with post–World War I Europe under the Treaty of Versailles (which Eliot despised: compare "Gerontion"), hopelessness, religious conversion, redemption and, some critics argue, his failing marriage with Vivienne Haigh-Wood Eliot. Classical scholar George A. Kennedy compares anaphora to "a series of hammer blows in which the repetition of the word both connects and reinforces the successive thoughts" ("New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism", 1984). Moloch whose factories dream and croak in the fog! We are the illusion. Following the idea above, the poem will be treated in isolation in this paper, trying to unravel all the figures, symbols and meanings that Eliot wished to transmit through The Hollow Men, reading onto and between the lines. Not affiliated with Harvard College. Note that "like a flock" also repeats twice in this excerpt from the Song of Songs. For example, Martin Luther King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech contains anaphora: "So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. On the simplest level, writers use anaphora to give a series of repeated words emphasis. The apartment was on the top floor—a small living-room, a small dining-room, a small bedroom, and a bath. The Hollow Men essays are academic essays for citation. Then in an antiphonic parody of a Christian worship service, a priest speaks and a congregation answers. '; when you take a cross-country drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading 'white' and 'colored'; when your first name becomes 'nigger' and your middle name becomes 'boy' (however old you are) and your last name becomes 'John,' and when your wife and mother are never given the respected title 'Mrs. In the famous opening lines of A Tale of Two Cities, Dickens sets the scene by using anaphora to convey the chaotic turbulence of the French Revolution, whose violent divisions form the backdrop for his story. The use of anaphora in this part of "Howl" creates a religious tone, as Ginsberg's repetitive verses rise to the cadence of a sermon. They lament their condition: their bodies paralyzed, their language meaningless. In his poem "London," William Blake makes use of anaphora with variation: In every cry of every Man, In every infant's cry of fear, In every voice, in every ban, The mind-forg'd manacles I hear. Copyright © 1999 - 2020 GradeSaver LLC. I paint it for you in hope — because the nation, seeing and understanding the injustice in it, proposes to paint it out. Anaphora appears frequently in literature, politics, and music. "(Franklin D. Roosevelt, Second Inaugural Address, January 20, 1937), "I don't like you sucking around, bothering our citizens, Lebowski. Line-by-line modern translations of every Shakespeare play and poem. They dance around a cactus reciting a perverse version of a child’s nursery rhyme. In this instance (from Chapter Four, Verses One and Two), there are two separate uses of anaphora: the first is the speaker's celebration of the beauty of his bride, and the second is a list of her admirable qualities. Moloch whose skyscrapers stand in the long streets like endless Jehovahs! Notice that Dickens also uses other types of repetition in addition to anaphora in this passage. It also allows Ginsberg to tie together the various industrial images of the city together and connect them to his idea of Moloch, and in so doing condemn capitalist society for making what he sees as such anonymous, monstrous structures. I don't like your jerk-off behavior, and I don't like you, jerk-off. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Look at you! Taken as a whole, the variations of anaphora in the poem drive home Blake's message that no one in all of London is immune from the "mind-forg'd manacles" that imprison its inhabitants. One of the Hollow Men relates his fear of meeting the judging eyes of the dead while he is sleeping. It can: Teachers and parents! Here’s a quick and simple definition: Anaphora is a figure of speech in which words repeat at the beginning of successive clauses, phrases, or sentences. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Hollow Men by T.S. The variation from "every cry" to "every infant" sharpens Blake's claim. Some additional key details about anaphora: Here's how to pronounce anaphora: uh-naf-er-uh. You are beautiful, my darling. Consequently, this figure of speech is often found in polemical writings and passionate oratory, perhaps most famously in Dr. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech. The oath taken by courtroom witnesses (and oft-repeated on police procedurals) is a prime example of epistrophe: Do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? Here, Salinger's use of anaphora conveys both the relentlessness of the rain and Holden's obsessive focus on the painful memory of his brother's death. "(Policeman in "The Big Lebowski", 1998).