[49][50], In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. [237][238] The Lucknow Metro has been operational since 9 March 2019. [274] State has the highest child mortality indicators,[275] from the neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) to the under-five mortality rate of 64 children who die per 1,000 live births before five years of age, 35 die within a month of birth, and 50 do not complete a year of life. Deoria is located 51 km east of Gorakhpur and about 317 km from the state capital Lucknow. [111], Each district is governed by a District Magistrate, who is an Indian Administrative Service officer appointed Government of Uttar Pradesh and reports to Divisional Commissioner of the division in which his district falls. [251], Uttar Pradesh has more than 45 universities,[252] including 5 central universities, 28 state universities, 8 deemed universities, 2 IITs in Varanasi and Kanpur, AIIMS Gorakhpur and AIIMS Rae Bareli, 1 IIM in Lucknow, 1 NIT in Allahabad, 2 IIITs, 1 National Law University in Lucknow and several polytechnics, engineering colleges and industrial training institutes. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 14,779. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. [148][149] Each government department is headed by a Minister, who is assisted by an Additional Chief Secretary or a Principal Secretary, who usually is an officer of Indian Administrative Service, the Additional Chief Secretary/Principal Secretary serve as the administrative head of the department they are assigned to. [13] Uttar Pradesh has largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state. [39] After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. [129][131] The central and eastern districts in particular have very high levels of poverty. [227], The state has a large, multimodal transportation system with the largest road network in the country. [266] Also at Sarnath are the Pillars of Ashoka and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, both important archaeological artefacts with national significance. [258] The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies was founded as an autonomous organisation by the national ministry of culture. The service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies. [166], According to the National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC), Uttar Pradesh tops the list of states of encounter killings and custodial deaths. [77] The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. Although an extensive network of public and private sector healthcare providers has been built, the available health infrastructure is inadequate to meet the demand for health services in the state. [44] Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). [45] Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad. Many communities have their own particular style of cuisines, such as the Jains, Kayasths and Muslims. The entire alluvial plain is divided into three sub-regions. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President,[54] in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. [112], Uttar Pradesh has more metropolitan cities than any other state in India. Some Uttar Pradesh schools, for example Delhi Public School (Noida), La Martinière Girls' College (Lucknow), and Step by Step School (Noida) have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country.