In contrast to HDL, the role of LDL in promoting atherosclerotic CVD has been consistently demonstrated based on findings from Mendelian randomization studies41,43 and different LDL-cholesterol–lowering treatments.35, The apparent lack of causality for HDL-cholesterol concentrations in CHD led to the hypothesis that the heterogeneous apolipoprotein composition of HDL may affect reverse cholesterol transport differently.44 A potential cardioprotective mechanism of dietary unsaturated fat compared with saturated fat is the increase in HDL subspecies containing apolipoprotein E, which has been shown to facilitate all steps of reverse cholesterol transport.45 Therefore while saturated fat intake increases HDL-concentrations per se more than unsaturated fat,33 average HDL-concentrations may not be effective in reflecting HDL function or CHD risk.44, Proponents of coconut oil consumption argue that CVD is uncommon among populations who consume coconut as a staple, such as the Pukapukans and Tokelauan populations who obtain 34% and 63%, respectively, of daily energy intake from coconut.46 Tokelauan individuals who migrated to New Zealand had higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels than those who remained in Tokelau, despite having a lower saturated fat intake.47 However, these findings must be treated with caution because of the observational and ecological nature of the studies with a high potential for confounding by the traditional diets of these populations typically containing high amounts of fish and low amounts of processed foods.38. The process is conducted in a drying device equipped with a steel plate bottom to isolate the kernels from getting in contact with the smoke generated by the fuel. fat-cholesterol enriched diet, Young coconut juice significantly reduces ‡Commercial soybean oil, commercially available soybean oil with usual (7%) 18:3 content. If at least 10 trials were available, then potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using a priori defined subgroup analyses, investigating the type of comparison oil (mainly monounsaturated [olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, high-oleic safflower oil] or mainly polyunsaturated [sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, safflower oil] fats), amount of oil intake (<10, 10 to <20, or ≥20 % energy), method of oil provision (provided meals/cooked foods, cooking oil only, or capsules), compliance check (direct observation, food diary or interview, or other methods), randomization, study design (parallel, crossover, or sequential feeding trial), study quality (Jadad score 0-2 or 3-4), double blinding (yes, no, or not reported), geographical location (Western, Asian, or others), participant health status (normocholesterolemic, hypercholesterolemic, or other health conditions), sex (male, female, or mixed) industry funding (yes, no, or not reported) and weight-loss intervention trials (yes vs no). Strandberg et al. Results of our meta-analysis do not support the claims of benefits from coconut oil consumption for alleviation of inflammation,22,23 improvements in glucose homeostasis22,23 or reduction of adiposity.22,24 In a randomized crossover trial in 45 healthy Malaysian adults, coconut oil significantly increased the pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 compared with olive oil and did not affect thrombogenicity indices.49 In 9 healthy Indian men, proinflammatory soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and matrix metalloproteinase levels were significantly reduced after a coconut oil intervention but not after a peanut oil intervention.8 However, the small sample size and nonrandomized sequential design and unblinded status of the participants limit interpretations of these results. This is due to the fact that the pancreatic lipase exhibits a high affinity for short-chain saturated fatty acids (lower than 10 carbons) located at the sn-3 and sn-1 positions, which accounts for a higher activity of the enzyme and, consequently, better absorption of such fatty acids. Association between lowering LDL-C and cardiovascular risk reduction among different therapeutic interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Wazir S.K.S., Technologies on The results indicated that the supplementation with CO may be effective on the symptoms of the neurodegeneration, since its polyphenol content might promote neuronal health through antioxidant mechanisms. They say coconut oil can aid weight loss, but can it really? criteria, dwarf varieties are the most suitable cultivars to obtain a Among nontropical vegetable oils used as comparison interventions, soybean oil, olive oil, safflower oil, and canola oil were most commonly used. At the same time, CO has also been attracting attention from the scientific community with an exponential growth of scientific articles on CO through the years (Figure 1). Likewise, the World Health Organization (WHO) also recommends limiting the intake of saturated fat to a maximum of 10 per cent of the daily total calories (World Health Organization, 2018). Valente et al. água de coco verde (, Find out more about sending to your Kindle, Find out more about sending content to Dropbox, Find out more about sending content to Google Drive, Coconut water preservation and processing: Despite the rising popularity of coconut oil because of its purported health benefits, our results raise concerns about high coconut oil consumption. The liberation of free SCFAs in the medium catalyses the reaction, accelerating the formation of rancidity products, such as aldehydes and ketones, consequently lowering the quality of the product (Oseni et al., 2017). Medium-chain fatty acids: evidence for incorporation into chylomicron triglycerides in humans. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the effect of coconut oil consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. water by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography with sobre a estabilidade fisico-quimica e atividade enzimatica da The first CO boom lasted until the World War II started (around 1940), when the supply of the product was cut off to the West countries and a CO shortage took place. Why Dr Michael Mosley now thinks that coconut oil may be good for you, Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products – Volume 1, The use of medium-chain triglycerides in gastrointestinal disorders, Effect of coconut oil supplement (2g/d) on total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio in healthy adults, The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie, Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil. However, for HDL-cholesterol, the Egger’s test (P=0.002) suggested that the comparison between coconut oil and nontropical oils may be affected by publication bias (Figure VII in the online-only Data Supplement). They observed that the thermogenesis and satiety were not increased in the group that received CO. However, the LDL particles raised by the consumption of these fats are large and buoyant, which are less related to coronary diseases when compared with small and dense LDL particles (Katan et al., 1994). Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. Once Europeans became aware of the utilization of CO and its several applications, they started establishing coconut plantations in the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific from the 1890s to the 1920s. The few studies performed on human subjects also present conflicting conclusions. Diversiflora, Montpellier, France, 2005. Regarding these Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is an ancien ), National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore. processing, Traditional foods: challenges facing the European Woodroof J.G., Coconut storage and during maturation and germination, Quality of coconut water ‘in natura’ belonging to Details on study characteristics (setting, design, sample size, follow-up duration, randomization, blinding, and drop-outs) participant characteristics (age, sex, and health status), specification of interventions (oil provision, amount of intake, and dietary compliance), type of comparison oil, outcomes, and funding sources were independently extracted by the reviewers (NN, JYHS) using a standardized form. Delhi, India, 1993. F.C., Hexitols in coconut milk: their role in nurture of dividing Since the studies on this topic are very scarce, there is not enough scientific support for the claims associating CO consumption with an improvement of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Coconuts: production, processing, products, Ed. (, Zakaria, Z. The American Heart Association estimates that in the USA every 38 s a death occurs due to CVDs (American Heart Association, 2018). Bong C., Promoting multi-purpose uses and competitiveness of the Magat S.S., Coconut productivity They found that the consumption of CO and sunflower oil (13 to 20 per cent of the total calorie content in the diet) did not alter lipid parameters on normal and type 2-diabetic subjects. Table 1 and Table I in the online-only Data Supplement show the characteristics of the included trials. Famurewa and Ejezie (2018) isolated polyphenols from virgin CO to verify their potential action against cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rats. Eyres et al. Until new researches can clarify the health claims associated with this fat, CO should not be consumed above the limit stablished by regulatory agencies for saturated fat intake. (, Pradeepkumar, T., Sumajyothibhaskar, B., Satheesan, K. N. (, Sabitha, P., Vaidyanathan, K., Vasudevan, D. M., Kamath, P. (, Sacks, F. M., et al. Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in Malaysian volunteers. micro-organisms. Co., Clegg (2017) reviewed the existing literature linking CO to weight loss and concluded that there is not enough scientific evidence to support that CO helps increase satiety and contributes to weight loss. Similarly, the modest number of trials and the fact that not all trials ensured compliance by providing all meals may have reduced our statistical power for a dose-response analysis. The EFSA panel concluded that there is not enough evidence in human intervention studies to support that MCFAs show a positive effect in weight management. Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil. The oil extraction may also be performed using the fresh kernel. water in coconut cultivars, in: Nair M.K., Khan H.H., Gopalasundaram Further, we assessed the stability of the pooled estimates by excluding the trials that were nonrandomized8,10 and weight-loss intervention trials.6,20 Stata version 12 (StataCorp) was used for statistical analyses. In addition, the American government launched a recommendation stating that adopting a low-fat diet was necessary to prevent these diseases. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (R.M.v.D.). Some researchers believe that lauric oils have unique properties, once they behave very differently in the metabolism compared with fats majorly composed by LCFA (Dayrit, 2014). However, a diet based on CO as the major fat source would not contain fatty acids that are essential for humans (linoleic and linolenic fatty acids). The conversion of sn-2 to sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerols can also take place, with further hydrolysis, resulting in glycerol and free fatty acids. MCT oil is usually marketed as a supplement for weight reduction, with a recommended daily dosage of 50–100 g (4–6 tablespoons) for improved gastrointestinal tolerance (Shah and Limketkai, 2017). In recent years, the media and CO producers have linked the consumption of CO to the prevention of CVDs (Sankararaman and Sferra). His hypothesis led to the development of what would become one of Keys’ most relevant work: The Seven Countries Study. (2014) reported the inhibition of monolaurin against Hilicobacter pylori added in a mouthwash solution. On the other hand, lower hunger suppression at 240 min, satiety, and total fullness were reported for the group of subjects who received VCO when compared with the group who received olive oil. Coconut water has a low matter content (2% to 5% wet basis), mainly comprising sugars and minerals. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. In addition, this product should not be used for frying purposes once it presents a low smoking point.